Cities have always been cradles of innovation and economic growth, sparking urbanization, from ancient Athens to 20th century New York. Today, roughly three out of four new jobs in the U.S. are created in metropolitan areas with over a million inhabitants. But not all cities are adept at economic resilience and some face fundamental challenges of adaptation, resilience, and transition. Many smaller cities and towns are witnessing an economic decline, resulting in a growing urban-rural divide and regional patterns of growth and shrinkage. While these trends are evident close to home, for example in the state of Georgia and other parts of the USA, they can be observed around the globe. This part of the research agenda of the Institute focuses on questions of urban economic resilience, regional patterns and processes of urbanization, and policies of urban and regional development.